Labor Laws

Amendments and Extension of the Scope of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964

Posted by on Oct 2, 2016 in Labor Laws | 0 comments

All individuals in the U.S., on the basis of educational qualification, job experience or expertise, have the right to equal employment opportunities. Recognition of this right is upheld, protected and enforced by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), which the United States Congress enacted in 1964; the EEOC likewise prohibits any form of discriminatory practices in the workplace based on one’s sex, race, color, religion, and national origin. This prohibition is clearly and strongly emphasized in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, a federal mandate that illegalizes all forms of workplace discrimination on the same grounds. All private employers, state and local governments, and educational institutions with, at least, 15 employees have the legal duty to comply with the provisions of Title VII.

Since the passing of the Civil Rights Act (also in 1964), amendments have been made (to this Act) to address new concerns that are expected to impact the business world, such as sexual harassment of employees, sex stereotyping, discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, and LGBT-related sex discrimination.

Besides Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the EEOC also enforces other laws that will warn against any attempt to commit discriminatory acts in all employment-related activities including, but not limited to, hiring, firing, promotion, compensation and training, on the basis of employees’ or applicants’ sex, race, color, religion, and national origin. These other laws include:

  • Equal Pay Act (EPA) of 1963;
  • Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967;
  • Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978;
  • Title I and Title V of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990;
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1991, which allows victims of intentional employment discrimination to claim monetary damages;
  • Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) of 2008; and,
  • Title II of the Genetic Information Non-discrimination Act (GINA) of 2008.

Aside from the Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978, which is an amendment on Title VII of the Civil Rights Act to include sex discrimination on the basis of pregnancy, childbirth, or other related medical conditions, discrimination against members of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) has also been prohibited by the EEOC, stating that this is an extension of Title VII ‘s prohibition on discrimination based on a person’s sex.

As explained in the Leichter Law Firm website, a variety of State and Federal laws, likewise, protect employees from discrimination in the workplace. Many of these laws, however, require an employee to file a claim within 180 days after the violation. It would a wise move, therefore, if a victim of employment discrimination would hire an attorney immediately to help probe into the veracity an of illegal discrimination claim. Employers who unlawfully discriminate against employees or job applicants may be liable for lost wages, compensatory damages, punitive damages, and attorney’s fees.

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